Genetics of keratoconus

Keratoconus (KC) is a bilateral, non-inflammatory, and progredient corneal ectasia that mostly occurs as a sporadic disorder, but it has long been recognized that a significant minority of patients also exhibit a family history. In Los Angeles in recent years several candidate genes such as VSX1 and SOD1 have been proposed, and some disease-causing mutations have been identified. Keratoconus research in united states has also focused on collagen genes, especially those that are differentially expressed in KC cornea. Alterations in COL4A3 and COL4A4 genes may be responsible for decreases in collagen types I and III, a feature often detected in Los angeles keratoconus.


How intac works

Intacs is a method of treating keratoconus typical just to understand how it works we need to follow and Seabrook us get the corners in the house it’s a disease affects the I imagine a person with the big daddy and another with a flat abdomen the person to person has the belly button pointing fall it’s that is the new way to OBs person has the Betty button pointing downloads to bring the baby bed and back hop on a break maybe place under the bed he same thing happens in kettle corn is corn meal because if he does and weakness start sagging in pointing down much for being the apex of the Carne I’m back up towards plastic segment called and asked me to place due to Cici if he is going along the road and see somebody standing on the side we have to be careful to decide whether to give him a ride in the Kado know. In Los angeles keratoconus can be treated with intacs

Keratoconus in Singapore

<ins datetime="2010-12-22T14:45:58+00:Mean age of our patients was 29.5 ± 9.40 years on enrolment, 62.9% males, and the ethnic distribution was 60.3% Chinese, 13.8% Malays, and 9.5% Indians. Clinically-evident keratoconus was present in both eyes of 65 patients (56.0%) and unilateral keratoconus in 5 patients (4.3%). Five patients (4.3%) had a family history of keratoconus. The majority of patients were managed with contact lenses (60.8%) or glasses (24.5%). Eye-rubbing was common (68%) as were atopic conditions such as asthma (26.3%) and eczema (18.4%). Conical protrusion was the commonest sign (75.3%). The mean cylinder was higher in keratoconus eyes compared to keratoconus suspect eyes (-4.01 vs -1.27, p < 0.001) while best corrected VA was significantly poorer (0.19 vs 0.05, p < 0.001). Unaided VA was significantly worse with increasing age (p = 0.016)Baby interesting study from Singapore body chill and Dan has shown that candidate Glenys incidents and the EVA indication population is similar to dad falling in the distant countries like United States Navy studied the allegations of chemical message came to the hospital and found the average age was 30 years and did the range from 20 to 40 years in Singapore this phone does all the population 60% with Chinese & order for Indian origin photo at 5% off then had relatives quit being diagnosed with Canada calling us and butter under treatment most of the patients were meals and or lease sign in the station is depicted in photography laws go any further on vision of function questionnaire because found that activities of the living for affected more than what could have been simply the case for the kind of fish and they had so you give me a mix of common conclusion that keratoconus going to spend presence in early in the eastern hemisphere like a vested hemisphere me of the more commonly affected and it’s a disease that you fix both eyes read it just have I may have a small chance of suffering from the same disease keratoconus


I have been diagnosed iwth kerataconus in my right eye.

in 2 years it is changed from 45D to 47D. Doctors recommend crosslinking.

Could you please inform me about the prices of CCL. I ahev no problem with left eye. Is it suitable to continue with glasses after CCL; instead of contact lens.

India with Love

Hi this is Sh…. from Bangalore, India. I am Suffering from keratoconus since 2000. There has been a progression from left eye and now to right eye.. currently using piggyback lens for left eye.. cannot wear for more than 4-5 hours continuously..Suggest better methods

Keratoconus Foundation

Hi ,

My name is D, I am Tanzanian student , studying in US.

I was reffered to you by National keratoconus foundation in California. I contacted them because I have a brother (23 years old) In Tanzania, East Africa who was diagnosed with Keratoconus last year. He has not been able to get treatment in my country and he is loosing his vision.

I was looking for ways for him to come here in US to receive Corneal transplant.

The problem is my family can not afford medical expenses and I am looking for Medical financial Assistance for him.

I am emailing you to ask you for the following informations:

1)Do you help people outside to come to US for treatments?

2) If Yes, which procedures should I follow?

3)If No, Do you have any information on organisations or hospitals around US t hat help keratoconus patients financially to get treatment(- Who can not afford medical expenses)

I have been searching for help, his sight is getting worse and It is sad that he is young and has no help around.

I am thanking you for reading this and looking forward to hear from you. My cell number is


PRELEX Explained

Your cornea (the outside part of the eye) and the eye’s natural lens (inside your eye) work together to focus light that comes into your eye on to the retina which is like a photographic film of a traditional camera. The lens, which is flexible when you are younger, becomes increasingly inflexible as you mature, often after you’ve passed the age of forty. Consequently, you have a difficult time focusing on objects. This condition is known as presbyopia.

The onset of presbyopia has traditionally meant that you are relegated to using reading glasses or cheaters for clear vision. And here’s a secret, even those individuals who’ve received laser vision correction will eventually become presbyopic and need glasses or contacts to restore their full range of sight.

Beverly Hills PRELEX offers a solution. Unlike procedures that focus on changing the shape of the cornea, PRELEX works on the dysfunctional lens inside the eye. Consequently, your vision after the procedure will be stable and unlikely to change over time. In addition, cataract surgery will not be necessary later in life. The presbyopic lens that is used to replace your eye’s natural lens will provide you with clearer vision at all distances, giving you little or no dependence on traditional or progressive bifocal glasses.

How is the PRELEX procedure performed?

Dr.Khanna  removes the eye’s dysfunctional lens using pressure waves and replaces it with a small plastic presbyopic lens. It is then unfolded and placed into permanent position. Patients go home soon after the procedure to relax for the rest of the day. Many patients report improvement in their vision almost immediately Some patients have gone to work the same day. Everyone heals somewhat differently, and most return to their normal activities within a day or two. PRELEX is usually performed on the second eye a week to two after the first procedure.


Although Los Angeles LASIK surgery may reduce the need for glasses or contacts, it cannot correct presbyopia and restore the eye’s full range of motion. An additional advantage to PRELEX surgery is that once you have had the procedure, you will not require cataract surgery later in life.

intacs or intacts?

hey whats, in a name, said the Bard. Rose is sweet in any language. But when it comes to medicine, the plethora of tongue twisters like keratoconus, form fruste keratoconus, pellucidal marginal degeneration or intacs, intacts, fleirs reing reminds me of K$sha’s song- Balh, blah, blah. Cmon why we cant KISS- keep it simple stupid. Keratoconus is low rigidity flabby cornea. Intacs are plastic segments very much like a miracle bra or suspender. It moves the floppy cornea up. was that difficult to understand. or do you prefer the geek gibberish which may sound like greek or latin or blah blah blah. serves eye care patients in the Los Angeles metroplex including the Beverly Hills, Burbank, Pasadena, San Fernando, San Gabriel, Santa Clarita, Thousand Oaks & Valencia areas


Hi, I have xanthomas on my eyelids and am interested in nonsurgical procedures. I am wondering if dr. Khanna can help me with that. i appreciate your reply. Thanks Vivian

Sorry,this is not our area of expertise. Best of Luck in your search.We are in Los Angeles and specialize in Keratoconus and its treatment. We use Intacs and crosslinkage with riboflavin to improve the vision of people in Los Angeles.

What causes keratoconus?

What causes keratoconus?

The causes of this condition are still unknown despite our familiarity with this disease. There have been many studies and there have been many theories.

One proposal suggests that orange county keratoconus depends on a defect in the development and genetic (about 7% of patients have relatives with keratoconus). This suggests that the consequence of an abnormality in growth, essentially a birth defect. Another is that Keratoconus is a degenerative condition. A third postulated that keratoconus is secondary to other diseases. A less accepted theory suggests it may be of endocrine origin.

The actual incidence of orange county keratoconus is not known. It is one of the most common afflictions of the eye but it is by no means a rare disease. Is estimated to occur once in every two thousand people. Usually the disease occurs in young people at puberty. It is found everywhere in the world without follow any geographical pattern, cultural or social acquaintance. Several sources suggest that keratoconus probably arises from a number of different factors: genetic, environmental or cell phone, no one can form the trigger that will initiate the disease. There are also doctors who associate the scratching keratoconus eyes. Often the patient has allergic rhinitis associated with keratoconus, which causes the eyes itch often. This can cause thinning of the cornea due to mechanical removal of epithelial cells.

The visual distortion experienced by the patients come from two sources, one being the irregular deformation of the surface of the cornea, and other scars formed at points of high curvature exposed. These factors act together to form regions on the cornea which projects an image into different regions of the retina and cause the symptoms of monocular diplopia or monocular poliplopia. The effect can worsen in low light because the pupil tends to dilate in order to receive more light, and thus further exposing the irregularities of the cornea. Scars seem to be an aspect of the degradation of the cornea, however, a large multi-center study conducted (Clek STUDY – Collaborative Longitudinal Evaluation of Keratoconus Study) suggests that the abrasion caused by contact lenses may increase the tendency of this finding on one factor above two, or more than double the chance of occurrence.

Recent studies have shown that orange county keratoconus corneas show signs of increased activity of proteases, a class of enzymes that break part of the collagen fibers in the corneal stroma, with a simultaneous significant reduction of the action of protease inhibitors. Other studies have suggested that the reduction of activity by the enzyme aldehyde dehydrogenase may be responsible for the creation of free radicals and oxidant species in the cornea. It is quite likely that whatever the pathogenic process, the damage caused by activities in the cornea resulting in reduction of its ultrasound pachymetry and weakening their resistance biomechanics.

A genetic predisposition for keratoconus has been observed, with the disease manifesting itself in certain families, and reported incidences of concordance in identical twins. The frequency of occurrence in close relatives is not clearly defined, although it is known that the incidence is considerably higher than in the general population, and studies have obtained estimates ranging between 6% and 19%. The gene responsible for keratoconus has not been identified: two large studies involving isolated communities homogenéticas contrary has indicated as causes of genetic disease mapped to chromosomes 16q and 20q. However, most genetic studies agree on a model autosome dominant hereditary. Keratoconus is also diagnosed more often in people with Down syndrome, although the reasons for this link have not yet been determined. Keratoconus has been associated with atopic diseases. including asthma, allergies and eczema, and it is not uncommon for many or some of these diseases affect a person. Studies suggest that rubbing the eyes vigorously may contribute to the progression of keratoconus, and patients should be discouraged from this practice.